Mitarbeiter krankgeschrieben: Wie geht man mit dem Eingliederungsmanagement um?

Wenn ein Mitarbeiter von einem Arzt krankgeschrieben wird, dann braucht er nicht zu arbeiten und bekommt trotzdem weiter seine Entlohnung. Normalerweise ist das krankgeschrieben-Sein kein Problem, insbesondere dann wenn es nicht zu oft passiert oder zu langen Zeiten der Krankschreibung führt. Allerdings ist das krankgeschrieben-Werden sehr unterschiedlich nach Person und Branche ausgeprägt. Arbeitswissenschaftler führen hohe Werte häufig auf schwierige Arbeitssituationen zurück. Generell ist davon auszugehen, dass auch im höheren Lebensalter häufiger krankgeschrieben wird.

Verständlich ist, dass Unternehmen sich Strategien überlegen, wie das krankgeschrieben-Sein minimiert werden kann. Solche Strategien laufen oft unter dem Begriff Eingliederungsmanagement und können als zusätzlich belastend empfunden werden. Nachdem die Mitarbeiter wieder am Arbeitsplatz erschienen sind, wird mit ihnen ein „Rückkehrergespräch“ geführt. In anderen Fällen werden sie aufgefordert, Fragebögen zur Krankschreibung auszufüllen. Es ist aber auch denkbar, dass das Verhalten des krankgeschriebenen Mitarbeiters geprüft wird, beispielsweise durch überraschende Besuche oder Telefonanrufe.

Als Mitarbeiter, der sich hier keines schlechten Gewissens bewusst ist, heißt es kooperativ mit der Situation umzugehen. Das beginnt schon mit der Krankmeldung nachdem einen der Arzt krankgeschrieben hat. Diese sollte man sofort dem Vorgesetzten bzw. den hierfür vorgesehenen Stellen im Unternehmen übermitteln. Sicherheitshalber kündigt man dies telefonisch an und prüft später telefonisch, ob der „gelbe Schein“ auch rechtzeitig eingetroffen ist.

Auch auf Kontrollen durch Hausbesuche sollte man angemessen reagieren, also ein kurzes Gespräch an der Haustür führen. Es ist aber nicht so, dass man jederzeit zu Hause erreichbar sein muss. Ist man krankgeschrieben, dann folgt daraus, dass man nicht arbeitsfähig ist. Keinesfalls ergibt sich daraus der Zwang, das Haus nicht zu verlassen. Am besten fragt man seinen Arzt, wie dieser Aktivitäten außer Haus in Bezug auf den Krankheitsverlauf einschätzt. Das man das Haus nicht verlässt, um dem Nachbarn bei Bauarbeiten oder anstrengender Gartenpflege zu helfen, sollte aber klar sein.

Nachdem das krankgeschrieben-sein beendet ist, kehrt man an den Arbeitsplatz zurück und spricht auch mit seinem Chef. Möchte dieser, dass ein Rückkehrgespräch geführt wird, dann kann man diesen Wunsch nicht abschlagen. Medizinische Aussagen zur Krankschreibung macht man aber in diesem Gespräch nicht, dafür ist man ja von einem Experten  – dem Arzt – krankgeschrieben worden. Solche Rückkehrgespräche machen auch nur Sinn, wenn sie in ein berechenbares Verfahren des Eingliederungsmanagements eingeordnet sind. Heiko Müller macht an einem Beispiel in seinem Blog deutlich, wie das Bundesarbeitsgericht die Bedeutung des Eingliederungsmanagements bewertet.

Ein gutes Eingliederungsmanagement hat auch Vorteile für die Mitarbeiter, die häufiger krankgeschrieben werden. Die Regeln beim Eingliederungsmanagement müssen aber dann über eine Verfahrensrichtlinie strukturiert werden und dem vorher krankgeschriebenen Mitarbeiter ausreichende Transparenz und Mitwirkungsmöglichkeiten sichern.

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