Nach der Wahl: Kritik an der Fünf-Prozent-Hürde

Die Bundestagswahl 2013 führt dazu, dass fast 16 Prozent der Wähler nicht im Deutschen Bundestag vertreten sind. Diese fehlende Repräsentation der Wähler im Parlament kann zu einer Neubewertung der Fünf-Prozent-Hürde führen.

Nach der Wahl: Kritik an der Fünf-Prozent-Hürde
Nach der Wahl: Kritik an der Fünf-Prozent-Hürde

Die Fünf-Prozent-Hürde oder –Klausel soll verhindern, dass durch kleine Parteien im Bundestag die Handlungsfähigkeit der Regierung nachhaltig beeinträchtigt wird. Allerdings geht die Fünf-Prozent-Hürde zu Lasten der Repräsentativität des Wählerwillens. Das ist normalerweise kein so großes Problem, weil die kleinen Parteien unterhalb von fünf Prozent normalerweise nicht sehr bedeutsam sind. Doch diesmal ist dies bei der Ergebnissen der Bundestagswahl 2013 anders. Sowohl die beiden größeren Klein-Parteien FDP und AfD scheitern an der Fünf-Prozent-Hürde wie auch viele kleinere Parteien wie die Piraten, die immerhin noch 2, 2 Prozent der Wählerstimmen erringen konnten. Insgesamt sind es fast 16 Prozent der Wähler, die nicht im Parlament repräsentiert sind. Damit kann sich fast jeder 6. Wähler in Deutschland nicht im wichtigsten Entscheidungsgremium vertreten sehen.

Das Bundesverfassungsgericht hat die Fünf-Prozent-Klausel bisher als gerade noch verfassungsmäßig angesehen, aber darauf hingewiesen, dass


1. Aus den Grundsätzen der formalen Wahlrechtsgleichheit und der Chancengleichheit der Parteien folgt, daß dem Gesetzgeber bei der Ordnung des Wahlrechts zu politischen Körperschaften nur ein eng bemessener Spielraum für Differenzierungen verbleibt. Sie bedürfen zu ihrer Rechtfertigung stets eines zwingenden Grundes.

2. a) Die Vereinbarkeit einer Sperrklausel mit dem Grundsatz der Gleichheit der Wahl kann nicht ein für allemal abstrakt beurteilt werden. Bei ihrem Erlaß sind die Verhältnisse des Landes, für das sie gelten soll, zu berücksichtigen.


Wenn fast jeder 6. Wähler nicht mehr im Bundestag vertreten ist, dann sollte dies Anlass genug sein, darüber nachzudenken, ob eine Fünf-Prozent-Hürde noch angemessen ist oder ob die Höhe der Hürde nicht deutlich reduziert werden muss. Faktisch bedeutet die Fünf-Prozent-Hürde gegenwärtig, dass das konservativ bürgerliche Lager nicht im gleichen Maße auf die politische Willensbildung Einfluss nehmen kann wie es dem Wählerwillen entspricht. Aber es sind auch andere Konstellationen denkbar, bei denen Reformkräfte nicht politisch wirksam werden können, weil Wahllisten aus diesem Spektrum unterhalb der Fünf-Prozent-Klausel bleiben. Gegenwärtig hat der Bundestag eine Mehrheit links vom bürgerlichen Lager, da fast zehn Prozent der bürgerlichen Wähler nicht im Parlament vertreten sind. Es läge nun in der Hand der linken Mehrheit für ein Wahlsystem ohne Fünf-Prozent-Hürde zu sorgen, die nicht noch einmal dazu führt, dass ein so großer Teil der Wähler nicht im Bundestag vertreten sind.

Bildnachweis: © tu-8 –

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